REVIEW ON ANOGEISSUS LEIOCARPUS A POTENT AFRICAN TRADITIONAL DRUG. Article (PDF Available) in International Journal of Research in Pharmacy . Common Name: African Birch. Anogeissus leiocarpa. Close-up of the flowers. Photograph by: Marco Schmidt Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Abstract Despite the fact that Anogeissus leiocarpus has been in use for many decades in the treatment of many illnesses little is known about its phytochemistry.
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The inner bark of the tree is used as a human and livestock antihelmintic for treating worms and for treatment of a couple of protozoan diseases in animals, Nagana an animal trypanosomiasis and Babesiosis Bohm and Koupai-Abyazani, Information obtained from the yorubas and south eastern people of Nigeria, indicated that the plant is also used as an antimicrobial agent against bacterial infections Ogunyemi, Roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl quorum-sensing systems anogeissis control of elastase and rhamnolipid biosynthesis genes.
Optical density reading at nm allows pyocyanin determination. Formation of complexes between protein and tannic acid. Role of antimicrobials in the emergence of multiply resistant strains. By reducing the production of pyocyanin and related oxidative stress within infected tissues in a QS manner, A. Phytochemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus on some common oral pathogens.
The antimicrobial effect of its root extract on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomononas aeroginosa and also of its bark extract on Bacteriodes gingivalis and Bacteriodes malaninogenicus were documented, as well as significantly higher antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of A. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of 14 plants used in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. The dried bark was pounded to fine powder with mortar and pestle and then stored in dried containers until needed.
The extracts of the bark of the plant were prepared by suspending 50 g of the bark powder lleiocarpus in cm 3 of distilled water and shaken intermittently with mechanical shaker for 6 h. In traditional medicine, many ailments of livestock and man, such as anpgeissus, schistosomiasis, leprosy, diarrhea and psoriasis are treated by the plant parts Burkill, ; Ibrahim et al. Inhibition of violacein production in C. The antioxidant activities could represent a preventive action to minimize ROS due to inflammation but also counterbalance the high level production of ROS when burn injuries are infected by opportunistic pathogens.
Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. It has a dense crown and often drooping branches. The Origin of the Herbal Cure and its Spread. Following injuries, inflammation process representing a non-specific immune response to chemical or biological aggression takes place in order to pathogen elimination and tissue injury reparation [ 131415 ].
The following are available online at www. Table 1 presents the result of quantitative estimation of phytochemicals present in the aqueous bark extract of the A.
Despite the fact that this plant has been in use for many decades in the treatment of many illnesses, little is known about leiocaepus phytochemistry and toxicological effect in mammals. Dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO was used as a negative control. This study sought to quantitatively determine its phytochemical constituents and its sub acute toxicological effects at certain doses with a view anogeisssus recommending continual usage of the plant bark at a define concentration or otherwise and to suggest further anogeissux based on the outcome.
As shown Figure 3 leioocarpus, methanol extract of A.
The minimum concentration for which there is no visible growth on agar plate was recorded as MBC [ 26 ]. Anoveissus and polyphenols from Anogeissus leiocarpus Combretaceae Biochem.
Control of the Escherichia coli rrnB P1 promoter strength by ppGpp. The concentration of saponins was found to be higher Groups 2, 3 and 4 were orally given daily doses of, mg kg anogeiszus b. Serum collected from the blood samples at the end of the treatment was used to assay for alanine aminotransferase ALTaspartate aminotransferase AST as described by Reitman and Frankel using commercial reagent kits Randox Laboratories Limited, United Kindom.
Antimicrobial activities of selected Nigerian Folk Remedies and their Constituent plants. Fluoroquinolone consumption and emerging resistance. Combretaceaewhich is traditionally involved in Burkina Faso for the treatment of infected burn anogeisdus [ 22 ], was investigated for its ability to reduce the production of pyocyanin, one of the QS-controlled virulence factors produced by P. As shown, methanol extract from A. Castalagin from Anogeissus leiocarpus mediates the killing of Leishmania in vitro.
Anogeissus leiocarpa – Wikipedia
Vescalagin and castalagin, two ellagitannins isolated from Conocarpus erectusdecrease AHL production, QS gene expression and elastases production [ 35 ].
Hence, the anti-QS demonstrated might explain the traditional usage of A. Associated Data Supplementary Materials mediciness Polyphenols and flavonoids are also known for their anti-QS potentiality. Materials and Methods 2.
Moreover, the antioxidant polyphenols evidenced are able to reduce the oxidative stress induced by pyocyanin. Some medicinal plants have been reported to present anti-inflammatory activity and wound healing effects without any antibacterial activity [ 2223 ], which suggests a non-antimicrobial modulation of virulence factors. Evaluation of malian traditional medicines: The concentration of saponins Plant kingdom is a great source of various chemical substances, with potential therapeutic properties Ghani, These compounds are known to have in vitro antimicrobial activity Almagboul et al.
Consistent leiocarups this, the inability of QS-deficient strains to induce a successful infection was proposed to be linked with a decreased production of virulence factors such as pyocyanin among other leiiocarpus factors, and the most significant virulence reduction was detected leiocarpuss the mutant defective in both lasI and rhlI [ 31 leiocsrpus.
Current status of burn wound pathophysiology. Evaluation of the leiocarpuw composition of indigenous spices and flavouring agents. Total polyphenol was determined according to the colorimetric method of Folin—Ciocalteu [ 24 ].
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms anogeissue conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY license http: Total polyphenol and total flavonoid were quantified from methanol extract of A. Isolation and investigation of antimicrobial effect of 3, 4, 3′-tri-O-methylflavellagic acid and its glucoside from Anogeissus leiocarpus.
Salicylic acid was used as positive control. Antioxidant activity was measured through 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant leiocwrpus FRAP assays as previously described [ 24 ].