J. C. CATFORD. LANGUAGE. LANGUAGE. LEARNING. A Linguistic. Theory of Translation Oxford University Press, First published TRANSLATION is an activity of enormous importance in the mod- ern world and it is a subject. A linguistic theory of translation: an essay in applied linguistics. Front Cover. John Cunnison Catford. Oxford University Press, – Language Arts & Disciplines – pages. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. John Cunnison Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistic research.
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The extent to which translation can be used in language-teaching is an issue of great concern to teachers, and it is one which cannot be fruitfully discussed without the support of some theory about what translation is, about the nature of translation equivalence, the difference between translation equivalence and formal corres- pondence, the levels of language at which translations may be performed and so on.
The entire phenomenon is documented in an extensive bibliography of literary translations of the period, the most comprehensive ever compiled. In our present example, having had My son is six translated into French we might ask for the translation of Tour daughter is six. In the Ngp the man who came to dinner. Vinay et Darbelnet, pp. John, he, wine, etc. And What did you do yesterday is a Tone group consisting of three feet. But no English item is relatable to the full range of situational features, and there are likely to be texts where no possible English translation equivalent exists.
This illustrates another case, like those cited in 7. The imperfective is unmarked — in other words it is relatively neutral in these respects the event may or may not actually be unique or completed, etc.
He has a broken leg.
Linguistic Theory 1 2 Translation: However, at a further degree of delicacy we may recognize two sub-classes of adjectives; those operating at M and those opera- ting at Q in Ngp structure. The foot-division between light and house in tehory.
K r N tea, spar, straw, NK a at, and, asks. S verxu, iz Niznego, da ne prisla, From above, from Lower and not came-on-foot. Nicego ili pocti nicego.
J d a linguistic theory of translation PDF | Damian Grzech –
A formal correspondent, on the other hand, is any TL category unit, class, structure, element of structure, etc. The exponent of Q is a rank-shifted clause of structure SP.
This table is to be interpreted thus: Teory ambiguity itself a feature of the English language —the SL is a functionally relevant feature of the situation. The linguist, however, cannot let the matter rest there. We repeat here an example from 9. S P this these that those St. This can be done in several ways: The exponent of C in English is the Ngp the linghistic l saw, i. The translation equivalence is set cagford between varieties specifically Cockney and Parigot: This is certainly true from an English point of view, and this is the only linguistically valid point of view, since my brother, being an English item, has an English meaning.
The contrasts llnguistic of two kinds i contrasts of tone, i. The following are exam- ples of English tone-groups the pitch-pattern being roughly indicated by lines drawn over the texts.
The patterns themselves still have to be accounted for — and these are what we call structures. With the medium levels the situation is different.
Context is, in fact, the organization of situation-substance into units which are co-extensive with and operationally linguistc from the formal units of grammar and lexis. Hot ir gestolen a pferd? In other cases, also exemplified in the translation of Ngps from English to French and vice-versa, class-shifts are more obvious: In normal, unbounded, translation, then, translation equi- valences may occur between sentences, clauses, groups, words and though rarely morphemes.
Halliday 1 2 and influenced to a large extent by the work of the late J. It is this autonomy of phonology which makes it possible for two or more lexical or grammatical items to share the same phonological exponents — e.
A Linguistic Theory Of Translation Oxford Univ. Press ( 1965)
An additional modification, reduced r is occasionally useful. The primary classes of clause are free operating as exponent of a in sentence-structure and bound operating as exponent of 3 in sentence-structure.
In the first place, it is a misrepresentation of the process, and consequently renders the discussion of the conditions of translation equivalence difficult; in the second place, it con- ceals the fact that a llinguistic distinction can be made between translation and another process which we call transference. Geo- graphy is concerned with more than topography and spatial co-ordinates — and human geography is more relevant here than mere location.
II a la jambe cassee.