Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities, Article. orig-research. Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. · Citation. This article highlights key enabling optical as well as wireless technologies and explains Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities. A plethora of enabling optical and wireless technologies have been emerging to build future-proof bimodal fiber-wireless (FiWi) broadband access networks. attention to the technical challenges and opportunities of FiWi networks, but also .
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In the past, WiFi and cellular radio access networks RANs have been in constant competition, until recently when tighter integration of both capacity-centric WLAN and coverage-centric mobile networks has emerged as a necessary paradigm [ 96 ]. The network is periodically monitored during prespecified intervals.
Subsequently, each link challeges assigned its delay as weight and CaDAR computes the shortest delay path for each pair of wireless mesh router and gateway. UrbanGustavo C. To do so, the so-called delay-differentiated routing algorithm DDRA was introduced in [ 46 ]. The Opportunties routing algorithm, originally intended only for the wireless front-end as explained above, can be extended to perform integrated path computation across both the wireless and optical domains of FiWi access networks.
Optical fiber does not go everywhere, but where it does go, it provides a huge amount of available bandwidth. Specifically, the path to a gateway will be selected based on its computed delay, whereas the path to an external buffer is chosen by taking both the delay and size of the external buffer into account. In [ 81 ], a novel MAC protocol for FiWi access networks to efficiently carry the ever-increasing amount of video traffic was proposed and investigated.
A variety of advanced survivability techniques for PONs and FiWi access networks were investigated in [ 7172 ]. In a detailed study carried out by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD [ 1 ] it was shown that the impact of providing residential and business subscribers with broadband access is manifold.
Current requirements for CPRI are very demanding in terms of maximum line rate 9. In the latter case, the bimodal nature of FiWi networks provides an opportunity to mitigate the detrimental challengex of wireless interferences on the network throughput for peer-to-peer communications between two wireless end-users.
Each RN consists of a protection unit and a bidirectional wavelength add-drop multiplexer based on a multilayer dielectric interference filter.
More precisely, each wireless user is associated with at most one BS and the distance between opportinities given wireless user and its associated BS must be within the transmission range of that BS.
With the advent of high-speed IEEE Koonen 16th International Symposium on Modeling and…. Koonen Journal of Lightwave Technology In , we recently described a variety of advanced techniques to render FiWi broadband access networks dependableincluding optical coding based fiber fault monitoring techniques, localized optical redundancy strategies, wireless extensions, and availability-aware routing algorithms, in order to improve their reliability, availability, and survivability as well security and safety.
Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities – Semantic Scholar
Also note that the capacity of the PON is much higher than that of the wireless front-end such that peer-to-peer traffic can be easily carried in the optical backhaul without suffering from any serious throughput penalty. According to [ 23 ], the following four architectures can be used. For each polling cycle, the central controller schedules the received bandwidth requests based on cjallenges traffic class and informs the Ahd subscriber stations about the resultant upstream transmission schedule.
DARA is a link-state routing algorithm, where each wireless mesh router and gateway periodically advertises its link conditions i. To better understand the rationale behind the vision of FiWi access networks, we first describe related research topics and then define FiWi access networks as a new research area in the following.
Topics Discussed in This Paper. The Energy Internet will be instrumental in realizing the vision of the smart grid by incorporating sophisticated sensing, monitoring, information, and communications technologies to provide better power grid performance, engage customers to play an interactive role, and support a wide range of additional services to both utilities and consumers.
In a wireless front-end with multiple-radio mesh nodes, it is important to assign the wireless channels efficiently such that contention is reduced. Arguing that due to its unique properties optical fiber is likely to entirely replace copper wires in the near-to midterm, we will elaborate on the final frontier of optical networks, namely, the convergence with their wireless counterparts. The proposed optimal routing algorithm yields a bound on the throughput gain in FiWi networks.
Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities
Finally, fibet-wireless research and development vision of an ideal access system architecture was outlined in [ 85 ], identifying the following three key design goals of future broadband access network architectures: FiWi networks and access networks in general suffer from a major shortcoming. The obtained results show that fiber-wirreless path routing using link unavailability as the link cost metric significantly improves the availability of the selected paths.
After an ONU is deregistered, the incoming traffic fibet-wireless that ONU is temporarily stored at the network terminal until the reregistration is opportunitiea. For downstream data transmissions to a wireless destination node, the OLT selects a gateway such that data packets travel on the minimum delay path across the EPON and wireless mesh front-end. Opportunlties recently explained by Perez in her excellent work on the implications of financial collapses [ 88 ], there have been four previous situations equivalent to the current crisis in the past two centuries since the first industrial revolution.
In this section, we highlight some of the recently proposed techniques to provide QoS continuity across the optical-wireless interface of FiWi access networks. Optical fiber provides an unprecedented bandwidth potential that is far in excess of any other known transmission medium and offers significantly longer ranges without requiring any active devices.
In the WMN, each mesh node has two radios with several orthogonal channels per radio.
Multihop relaying is used to extend the range. If a failure happens at an AP, the retransmitted signals are protection switched through other optical paths by throwing an optical switch inside the affected AP.
Given the location of the wireless mesh routers, the optimal placement of ONUs was found with the objective to minimize the total number of required wireless hops. FiWi access networks are challenes in strengthening our information society while avoiding its digital divide. The considered routing algorithms cover either only the wireless front-end or both the wireless and cchallenges domains of FiWi access networks.
Furthermore, FiWi research also includes the study fiwl different remodulation schemes for the design of colorless i. The delay along different paths may be different and may vary over time. Unlike the two previous fiber-witeless, the third proposed heuristic also considers the cost of the fiber layout from ONUs to the OLT as well as interference in the wireless front-end.
FMC can be done at different levels, for example, business or service provisioning level. This major difference between optical fiber and wireless links should also be taken into account in the design of netwoeks routing algorithms for FiWi access networks.
Wireless networks aimed at meeting specific service requirements while coping with particular transmission impairments and optimizing the utilization of the system resources to ensure cost-effectiveness and satisfaction for the user.