participei de vários projetos para editora Moderna, Ática, Saraiva, Spione e Ftd Biologia, Ciências, Geografia, História e ilustrações infantis para livro. Amabis & Martho (), for instance, clearly presents the idea of evolution as an .. AMABIS, J. M.; MARTHO, G. R. Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna (2nd ed.). P. A abordagem da relatividade restrita em livros didáticos do ensino médio. AMABIS, J.M.; MARTHO, G.R. Fundamentos da Biologia Moderna. livro/58ra/JNIC/RESUMOS/resumo_html>.
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We also found in the analyzed textbooks an informational view of life. It conflates the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathological process with the pathological phenomenon livri.
Due to a mistake in the post-translational modification of this protein, a non-functional version is produced, the prion protein.
Los conceptos estruturales en el aprendizaje por investigacion.
Their Dw and Representation. The nature of life, in: As concerns the search for common patterns in the diversity of life, a reductionist tendency can be perceived, as the unity of life is emphasized in the molecular and cellular levels, with no corresponding effort to uncover features which might integrate our understanding of living beings in higher organizational levels. From the 8 books analyzed, 5 presented a definition of life.
The Philosophy of Artificial Life. This approach can be verified in the fragmentary way the textbooks deal with the levels of complexity, making it difficult to understand, for instance, that the relations of living beings to each other and to their jartho depend on their internal organization.
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We decided then to make an analysis of Brazilian high-school biology textbooks, as textbooks represent, in Brazil, the major way of transposing contents from scientific to school knowledge Razera et al. Nonetheless, what seems strange in the above solution is that it follows necessarily from the attempt to propose lists of necessary and sufficient conditions for life. The problem lies in the disproportionate emphasis on the micro-structure of biological systems, usually in an approach tending to isolate molecular and cellular structures from the organismic and environmental contexts.
It is desirable, then, to address this problem in a non-essentialist manner, inasmuch as this is compatible with population thinking. It is a vast, modern and intrepid study in which we seek to understand the most intimate nature of each phenomenon that takes place inside a cell, in a fascinating investigation to explain each normal or abnormal process of the organism, justifying the nature of diseases, trying to correct or avoid them, and understanding life itself better.
It comes to mind the issue of how to study with the expected lucidity a set of phenomena and to build theories capable of explaining them in the absence of a more or less clear characterization of what are the very phenomena at stake.
What is the Books present a definition of life? It is clear that the biochemical nature of living beings is quite particular to each species or individual. When the properties listed are interconnected in the context of some paradigm, the list is no longer, as in the case of essentialist definitions, something like a medical syndrome, a collection of symptoms with no underlying cause.
Essentialist list of properties, allegedly including sufficient and necessary conditions for a system to be living.
Amabis Fundamentos Biologia Moderna Pdf 12 | piapilhard
As a paradigmatic view of definitions releases us from the requirement of listing necessary and sufficient conditions for identifying in an essential and definitive way what are the phenomena that fall in a certain class, it makes it possible to clearly delimit, based on an precise theoretical justification, what are the phenomena in the domain of a given science.
Nevertheless, when assuming such an approach, we should not underestimate the risks of losing from sight the need for an understanding not only of the molecular and cellular components of living systems, but also of the organizational principles by means of which the very systems which we classify as living can emerge from those components.
All books agreed about the complexity involved in mxrtho to define life, given that some organisms cannot be properly placed in the set of living beings through certain lists of common characters. One book based its approach to the definition of life ra the biological meaning of death, as the inevitable antithesis of life Figure 2.
The genetic program metaphor, much criticized in the literature e.
fundamenots Because, at last, to say what are living beings is quite easy. Lkvro, essentialist efforts to define life through lists of necessary and sufficient properties still predominate zmabis the analyzed textbooks. The Great Chain of Being.
Autopoietic systems, replicators, and the search for a meaningful biologic definition of life. It can be compared with the memory of a computer and stores thousands of instructions to make cellular proteins. Therefore, it should be regarded as a positive aspect that the biology textbooks we examined here, albeit recognizing the difficulties involved in defining life, do not avoid the discussion about how one can characterize living beings, differentiating them from inanimate matter.
All the books analyzed put forward some characterization of living beings. Emmeche observes that definitions of life are seldom discussed in depth or even mentioned in biology textbooks and dictionaries. What is the definition of life lkvro by the textbook, if there hiologia any? When the living beings are thus fundamenyos in the textbooks, one can discern a tacit idea that the understanding of small entities, in the micro- levels, is fundamental to the understanding of larger entities, in the macro-levels.
The same is not true of Paulinowho presents a coherent set of interrelated properties, based on a view of the scope of the Biological Sciences as well as of the way the living world is organized, from the simplest to the most complex levels of organization, suggesting the existence of some theoretical justification for their choice; nonetheless, the paradigm at stake is not explicitly stated. It is also interesting to examine the difficulties that follow from the classification of viruses as living beings.
The finding that two books address the problem of defining life in definite paradigmatic contexts is also very interesting.